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Whole Medical Systems

“Whole medical systems are built upon complete systems of theory and practice. Often, these systems have evolved apart from and earlier than the conventional medical approach used in the United States. Examples of whole medical systems that have developed in Western cultures include homeopathic medicine and naturopathic medicine. Examples of systems that have developed in non–Western cultures include traditional traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda.” (1)

Whole systems research

  • Bell IR, Koithan M. Models for the study of whole systems. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Dec;5(4):293–307.
  • Ritenbaugh C, Hammerschlag R, Calabrese C, Mist S, Aickin M, Sutherland E, Leben J, Debar L, Elder C, Dworkin SF. A pilot whole systems clinical trial of traditional Chinese medicine and naturopathic medicine for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jun;14(5):475–87.
  • Verhoef MJ, Lewith G, Ritenbaugh C, Boon H, Fleishman S, Leis A. Complementary and alternative medicine whole systems research: beyond identification of inadequacies of the RCT. Complement Ther Med. 2005 Sep;13(3):206–12.
  • Walach H, Falkenberg T, Fønnebø V, Lewith G, Jonas WB. Circular instead of hierarchical: methodological principles for the evaluation of complex interventions. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2006 Jun 24;6:29.

Traditional Chinese Medicine/Acupuncture

  • Berman BM, Lao L, Langenberg P, et al. Effectiveness of acupuncture as adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2004;141(12):901–910.
  • Cummings M. Modellvorhaben Akupunktur–a summary of the ART, ARC and GERAC trials. Acupunct Med. 2009;27(1):26–30.
  • Shang A, Huwiler K, Nartey L, et al. Placebo–controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine and conventional medicine comparative study. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2007;36(5):1086–1092.
  • Thomas KJ, MacPherson H, Thorpe L, Brazier J, Fitter M, Campbell MJ, Roman M, Walters SJ, Nicholl J. Randomized controlled trial of a short course of traditional acupuncture compared with usual care for persistent non–specific low back pain. BMJ 2006;333(7569):623.

Naturopathic Medicine

  • Standish LJ, Calabrese C, Snider P. The naturopathic medical research agenda: the future and foundation of naturopathic medical science. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2006;12(3):341–345.
  • Szczurko O, Cooley K, Mills EJ, Zhou Q, Perri D, Seely D. Naturopathic treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis among Canadian postal workers: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Aug 15;61(8):1037–45.

Homeopathic Medicine

  • Bell IR, Lweis DAI, Brooks AJ, et al. Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology, 2004a;43:577–582.
  • Ernst E, Kaptchuk TJ. Homeopathy revisited. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1996;156(19):2162–2164.
  • Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K, Olsen S, Vaughters L. Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Alt Comp Med. 2005;11:21–27.
  • Walach H, Jonas WB, Ives J, van Wijk R, Weingärtner O. Research on homeopathy: state of the art. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):813–29.
  • Kaptchuk TJ, and Linde K. A critical overview of homeopathy. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;138(5):393–399.

Ayurvedic Medicine

  • Patwardhan B, Bodeker G. Ayurvedic genomics: establishing a genetic basis for mind-body typologies. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jun;14(5):571–6.
  • Sharma H, Chandola HM, Singh G, Basisht G. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion, and treatment of disease. Part 1–Ayurveda, the science of life. J Altern Complement Med. 13(9):1011-9, 2007 Nov.
  • Sharma H, Chandola HM, Singh G, Basisht G. Utilization of Ayurveda in health care: an approach for prevention, health promotion, and treatment of disease. Part 2–Ayurveda in primary health care. J Altern Complement Med. 13(10):1135-50, 2007 Dec.
  • Singh BB, Vinjamury SP, Der–Martirosian C, et al. Ayurvedic and collateral herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi–experimental designs. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2007;13(4):22–28.